Science and Technology
The multi-faction insurgency that has been tearing Iraq apart ever since the fall of Saddam Hussein’s regime in 2003 has often involved the use of such crude and indiscriminate methods and means of warfare as the suicide bomb and the improvised explosive device. But in mid-2014 there were reports that some aspects of the armed conflict had risen to unexpected heights of contemporary sophistication, with the apparent use of cyberspace as a domain for hostilities.
Media attention to the ongoing Ukraine-Russia conflict has focused on a significant number of hacking and malware attacks by private actors, described in this Insight as cyber operations. As an example, the pro-Russian hacker group CyberBerkut has assumed responsibility for cyber operations against NATO, the vote counting system for Ukrainian elections, and a mobile device within the U.S. vice-president’s delegation during a visit to Ukraine.