Over the past several years, UNESCO World Heritage Sites across the globe have been jeopardized by warfare, political instability, and other security concerns. UNESCO World Heritage Sites have become exceptionally vulnerable to increasing threats by States and non-State actors that endanger their integrity and universal value. The pillaging of archeological sites has also reached an industrial scale. How can States, international organizations and civil society respond to protect and preserve World Heritage Sites belonging to all of humankind and cultural property that forms an integral part of a civilization’s identity and memory? The panel will shed light on recent events that have contributed to endangering cultural property, and will analyze the challenges faced in safeguarding cultural property and World Heritage Sites.