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On May 19, 2016, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security issued a joint statement on implementation of sanctions relief for Iran. The statement recalls the implementation in January 2016 of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA). The JCPOA, negotiated between Iran, the “P5+1” (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council plus Germany), and the European Union, lifted economic and financial sanctions against Iran in exchange for Iran’s agreement to curtail its nuclear program and renounce its intention to develop nuclear weapons. Some U.S. domestic sanctions remain in place against Iran. According to reports, the joint statement comes in response to concerns that private entities—particularly in Europe—have hesitated to resume business with Iran for fear of violating the remaining sanctions, leading to a perceived disparity among Iranians in the equity of the JCPOA nuclear deal. The May 19th statement reiterates that private entities can and should avail themselves of opportunities to resume business with Iran that have become available since implementation of the JCPOA. The states that issued the statement noted that “it is in [their] interest and the interest of the international community to ensure that the JCPOA works for all participants, including by delivering benefit to the Iranian people.” The statement also adds that private reasons regarding why companies have so far refrained from resuming business in Iran are outside of the control of the negotiating powers, claiming “[t]here are factors within Iran’s control that have influenced companies’ decision-making and hindered Iran’s economic progress. For Iran to realize the economic improvement it desires, it will also have to take steps to create an environment conducive to international investment.”