On June 23, 2016, the United Kingdom held a referendum on whether to leave or remain in the European Union. A nationwide majority of 51.9 percent voted to leave. The referendum turnout was 46.5 million people, or 72.2 percent of the population. A majority of voters in England and Wales voted to leave, while a majority of voters in Scotland and Northern Ireland voted to remain. The process for a member state to leave the European Union is detailed in Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty, which stipulates that “any Member State may decide to withdraw from the Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements.” The U.K.’s exit from the Union would be unprecedented, as no other member state has triggered Article 50. In order to carry out the withdrawal, the UK Parliament must first repeal existing legislation, including the European Communities Act of 1972. Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty also stipulates that a member state has two years to negotiate the terms of its withdrawal. On June 24, 2016, Scotland’s First Minister, Nicola Sturgeon, responded to the referendum results and addressed the possibility of a second Scottish independence referendum.