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On January 31, 2017, the Court of Justice of the European Union ruled in Commissaire général aux réfugiés et aux apatrides v. Mostafa Lounani that an application for asylum could be rejected if the asylum seeker has participated in the activities of a terrorist network, even though the individual did not commit an act of terror. According to the press release, Mostafa Lounani applied to the Belgian authorities for refugee status in 2010 after his arrest in 2006 for participating in the activities of a terrorist organization by providing logistical support to the group. He alleged that “he feared persecution in the event of his being returned to Morocco because of the likelihood that he would be regarded by the Moroccan authorities as a radical Islamist and jihadist, following his conviction in Belgium.” His application was denied. Upholding the Belgian authorities’ denial, the Court stated that relevant EU directive grounds for denial of refugee status included not only “the actual perpetrators of terrorist acts, but . . . also . . . the persons who engage in activities of recruitment, organisation, transportation or equipment of individuals who travel to a State other than their States of residence or nationality for the purpose of, inter alia, the perpetration, planning or preparation of terrorist acts.”