On November 24, 2017, the African Court of Human and People’s Rights (AfCHPR) held that Rwanda violated Ingabire Victoire Umuhoza’s right to freedom of opinion and expression and her right to an adequate defense. Ingabire is a Rwandan national who founded a political opposition party while living abroad from 1993–2010 and intended to register her party and run for president in the 2010 elections. Upon her return to Rwanda in January 2010 she gave a speech at the Genocide Memorial Centre in Kigali, where she spoke about reconciliation and ethnic violence, and after which she was charged with complicity in terrorism and promoting the ideology of genocide, and sentenced to fifteen years in prison. Ingabire appealed her case to the AfCHPR, which found that Rwanda had violated her right to freedom of expression under Article 9(2) of the African Charter and Article 19 of the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights, but that the law prohibiting the minimization of the genocide served a legitimate purpose. The Court also held that Rwanda had violated Ingabire’s right to defense under Article 7(1) of the African Charter.