- US Government Regulation & Trade Resources
- Foreign Government Regulation
- International Coordination & Trade Resources
- Trade Treaties/Conventions
- International Commercial Arbitration
- Convention on the International Sale of Goods
- Private International Law Organizations
The International Economic Law chapter of the ASIL Electronic Resource Guide for International Law (ERG) offers an overview of electronic resources in this dynamic and evolving area of law. The emphasis will be on Internet sites from such sources as international and regional organizations, non-governmental international entities and government agencies. Online subscription/commercial services will be addressed where appropriate. The electronic resources highlighted in this guide are primarily English-language sites, although many are multi-lingual. The exponential growth of quality electronic resources, both free and subscription, precludes any guide from being truly comprehensive. This chapter aims to present the researcher, whether the academic, practitioner or international businessperson, with an introduction to important and current sources of information for international economic law.
This chapter adopts a broad interpretation of international economic law encompassing both the conduct of sovereign states in international economic relations, and the conduct of private parties involved in cross-border economic and business transactions. This interpretation will evolve as economic interrelationships among countries continue to grow and new challenges appear on the horizon.
International economic law is not derived from a single source or even several sources of law; it has its genesis in many. National, regional, and international law (public and private), policy and customary practices are all components of international economic law. International economic law encompasses a wide spectrum of subjects including trade in goods and services, financial law, economic integration, development law, business regulation and intellectual property. This expansive scope presents a challenge for identifying relevant information. This chapter offers the researcher a starting point for locating primary and secondary sources through a topical schematic.
The international, regional, national, and non-governmental entities highlighted in this chapter produce a wide range of documents including international conventions, treaties, bilateral agreements, model laws, guidelines, statistics, and interpretative materials. Many of the websites listed in this guide offer access to resources by topic and country. These websites are multi-layered and possess a complex information architecture. It is therefore suggested that the researcher utilize not only the annotations provided, but also the site maps available at individual websites to view a conceptual and comprehensive overview of the documents and resources available.
International trade law focuses on how countries conduct trade in goods and services across national borders. The international, regional and national organizations detailed in this section address the export and import issues that arise in international trade in goods and services. Institutions also provide assistance and support through market and country reports, and economic analyses promoting international trade. For specific focus on competition, electronic commerce, the environment, and taxation, see VIII. International Business Regulation.
A. US GOVERNMENT REGULATION AND TRADE RESOURCES
US Department of Commerce (http://www.commerce.gov)
The US Department of Commerce is responsible for encouraging and assisting the country's international trade and economic growth. It provides services and assistance to increase America's competitiveness in the world economy, and administers programs to combat unfair foreign trade competition. The following bureaus relating to international economic law are part of the Commerce Department.
Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) (http://www.bis.doc.gov)
Formerly the Bureau of Export Administration (BXA), the BIS is a separate bureau within the Department of Commerce. The main objective of the BIS is the security of the United States, encompassing national, economic, cyber, and homeland security. The BIS directs US export control policy including license applications and enforcement of US export control laws over a wide range of products, technology and software. The site includes information on export controls and compliance and enforcement of export administration regulations. The BIS evaluates and processes licenses for proposed exports and re-exports of goods and technology from the United States. The Department of Commerce administers the Wassenaar Agreement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies (http://www.bis.doc.gov/Wassenaar/Default.htm). Dual use exports are commercial items that could have military applications.
International Trade Administration (ITA) (http://trade.gov/index.asp)
Established in 1980 as part of the Department of Commerce, the ITA promotes global trade and aims to strengthen the international trade and investment position of the United States by assisting US exporters. The ITA provides information on exports and export documentation, trade statistics, and market research. The ITA is responsible for nonagricultural trade operations of the US government and supports the trade policy negotiations of the United States Trade Representative (http://www.ustr.gov/). The Manufacturing and Services Division(http://www.ita.doc.gov/td/td_home/tdhome.html) focuses on specific industries in exporting. Other divisions of the ITA including the Import Administration, Trade Compliance Center, Market Access & Compliance, and the US Commercial Service are discussed below.
Import Administration (http://trade.gov/ia/)
The Import Administration, a division of the International Trade Administration (ITA), enforces the US antidumping and countervailing duty laws to prevent unfairly traded imports from harming US industry. The Import Administration also works with the United States Trade Representative (http://www.ustr.gov/) in negotiating international rules for antidumping and countervailing duty investigations. The Import Administration provides administrative protective orders (APO) arranged by country and product, regulations, policy bulletins, the regulations and orders of the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board. Imports are subject to antidumping (AD) and countervailing duties (CVD). The Trade Remedy Compliance Staff (TRCS) (http://ia.ita.doc.gov/trcs/index.html) site contains import and export data, links to resources, legislation, regulations, and case-tracking of foreign AD/CVD activity. The Antidumping Manual (http://ia.ita.doc.gov/admanual/index.html) is available in full-text or by chapter.
Market Access and Compliance (MAC) (http://trade.gov/mac/)
The Market Access and Compliance (MAC) unit is part of the International Trade Administration (ITA) that advises on US economic policies and works to assist US businesses to overcome barriers to international trade. MAC is also responsible for implementing and enforcing foreign compliance with bilateral and multilateral trade agreements. MAC has links to trade information centers for Afghanistan, Iraq, Russia and the independent states, Africa, Japan, and China.
The Trade Compliance Center (TCC) (http://www.export.gov/tcc) is part of the International Trade Administration that monitors foreign compliance with trade agreements to ensure that US exporters get the maximum benefits from these agreements. The TCC is your one-stop shop for obtaining US government assistance in resolving trade barriers or unfair treatment in foreign markets. The TCC has texts of the more than 275 trade agreements(http://tcc.export.gov/Trade_Agreements/index.asp) including bilateral investment treaties to which the US is a party. Country Market Research (http://tcc.export.gov/Country_Market_Research/index.asp) has links for Country Market Research, National Trade Estimate Reports, and Trade Policy Review Summaries.
US Commercial Service (http://www.trade.gov/cs/)
The US Commercial Service, a unit of the Department of Commerce, provides trade assistance including trade contact services and market research. Select Market Research Library(http://www.export.gov/mrktresearch/index.asp) for in-depth country commercial guides, prepared by embassy staff, containing detailed information about current trade and investment laws. Free access with registration.
Export.gov brings together resources from many different agencies in the U.S. Government. Export.gov is managed by the International Trade Administration collaborating with 19 different agencies. Areas addressed include international sales, marketing and finance, regulations and licenses, trade data and analysis, and trade problems.
Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im) (http://www.exim.gov)
Established in 1934, the Ex-Im Bank is the official export credit agency of the US helping to finance US exports by supplementing private capital. For example, the Bank focuses on critical areas such as emphasizing exports to developing countries, countering trade subsidies of other governments, and encouraging exports by small businesses. This site has country/fee info fact sheets with guidelines for financing and exposure fee information.
USA Trade Online (http://www.usatradeonline.gov/)
USA Trade Online is run by the Census Bureau starting on October 1, 2010. The former STAT-USA service from the US Department of Commerce ceased services as of October 1. Users can access current and cumulative U.S. export and import data for over 18,000 export commodities and 24,000 import commodities.
United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (CAFC) (http://www.cafc.uscourts.gov )
The Federal Circuit hears appeals from the US Court of International Trade and the US International Trade Commission. The Federal Circuit, established by Congress in 1982, is the only US court of appeals defined exclusively by its jurisdiction rather than geographical boundaries. This site includes the rules of court, internal operating procedures, court opinions and decisions.
United States Court of International Trade (USCIT) (http://www.cit.uscourts.gov/)
The Constitution and congressional enactment define the jurisdiction of the USCIT. The Court has judicial review of administrative actions of government agencies dealing with importation. The Court also has authority to decide any civil action against the United States, its officers, or its agencies arising out of any law pertaining to international trade. The geographical jurisdiction of the USCIT extends throughout the United States, and the court is authorized to hold hearings in foreign countries. Slips opinions from 1999 to present, court rules and forms are available.
Customs and Border Protection (CBP) (http://www.customs.gov/xp/cgov/home.xml)
The Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security is the single unified border agency of the US. The CBP is responsible for administering tariffs and processing import entries. Select Trade button for extensive information on exporting, importing and enforcement of US customs laws including legal decisions and publications.
United States International Trade Commission (ITC) (http://www.usitc.gov/)
Formerly known as the US Tariff Commission upon being established by Congress in 1916, the Trade Act of 1974 changed the name of the Tariff Commission to the US International Trade Commission (ITC). The ITC is an independent, quasi-judicial agency that furnishes reports and recommendations to the President, Congress and agencies on issues of international trade. In fulfilling its mission of conducting investigations and holding public hearings, the ITC website includes texts of petitions and complaints under Dockets. The ITC provides EDIS (http://www.usitc.gov/secretary/edis.htm), an electronic gateway for viewing, printing and downloading certain investigation related documents. The "Publications" section includes the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States Annotated (http://www.usitc.gov/tata/hts/index.htm) and opinions for countervailing duties/antidumping (Title VII) (http://www.usitc.gov/trade_remedy/731_ad_701_cvd/investigations/index_opinions/index.htm). The Journal of International Commerce and Economics (http://www.usitc.gov/journals/) provides in-depth analysis on current and emerging issues in international trade. All USITC online publications are available at publications by type(http://www.usitc.gov/publications/by_type.htm). The Interactive Tariff and Trade DataWeb (http://dataweb.usitc.gov/) provides customized trade data, current tariffs, and prepared trade data reports.
United States Trade Representative (USTR) (http://www.ustr.gov/)
The US Trade Representative is a cabinet-level official who serves as the President's principal trade advisor and is responsible for handling all trade negotiations. The USTR handles all US interests within the World Trade Organization, regional trade and economic organizations and with major trading partners. Text of global, regional and bilateral trade agreements(http://www.ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Section_Index.html), reports issued by the Trade Representative, prepared testimony, and press releases are available.
B. FOREIGN GOVERNMENT REGULATION
The following compilations of foreign government websites can be used to identify agencies of foreign national governments that are involved in international trade and regulation.
Foreign Information by Country (http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/govpubs/for/foreigngovt.htm) The University of Colorado, Boulder compiles government information, country profiles, articles/databases, health and peace-keeping information.
International Documents (http://www.library.northwestern.edu/govpub/resource/internat/foreign.html)/)
A collection of links to foreign governments compiled by the Government Publications Department, Northwestern University.
C. INTERNATIONAL COORDINATION AND TRADE RESOURCES
G8 Information Centre (http://www.g7.utoronto.ca/)
The G7/G8 meetings deal with macroeconomic issues, international trade, and relations with developing countries. G8 members include France, the United States, Britain, Germany, Japan, Italy, Canada, European Union, and Russia. This information centre has background information on the G8, document texts from G8 Summit Meetings, G8 Ministerial Meetings, and scholarly publications. The Group of 20 (G20) is a forum of finance ministers and central bank governors formally created at the September 25, 1999 meeting of the G7 Finance Ministers. G20 aims to include "systemically significant economies and to promote cooperation to achieve stable and sustainable world growth that benefits all." G20 information includes meetings and related documents, and a bibliography.
Global Trade Negotiations Home Page (http://www.cid.harvard.edu/cidtrade/)
From the Center for International Development at Harvard University. Provides recent news articles in the area of international trade. Summaries of recent developments in trade policy, lists of research papers, and links to additional resources are arranged under 21 issue headings germane to trade including agriculture, anti-dumping, competition, investment, service and transparency. Under Resources, find research papers, links to non-governmental organizations and international organizations, and information about individual countries.
International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) (http://www.iccwbo.org/)
The ICC has top-level consultative status with the United Nations representing the views of business to promote international trade and investment. The ICC makes rules, that although voluntary, are adhered to in countless international transactions, thereby governing the conduct of transnational business in such areas as banking, arbitration, commercial crime, e-commerce, energy, financial services, taxation, and trade and investment. Statements, codes and rules include the text of the ICC International Customs Guidelines, other codes, model clauses, and rules arranged in chronological order of adoption.
The ICC publishes Incoterms 2000 (http://www.uncitral.org/pdf/english/texts_endorsed/INCOTERMS2000_e.pdf). Incoterms, the ICC official rules for the interpretation of trade terms, are standard trade definitions that are most commonly used in international contracts. The Incoterms 2000 are reproduced as Annex II in INCOTERMS 2000: Report of the Secretary General (A/CN.9/479), UNCITRAL Yearbook, 2000, vol. XXXI, p. 599.
Uniform Customs and Practices for Documentary Credits (UCP) are a set of rules on the issuance and use of letters of credit. The current version, UCP 600, is the sixth revision since the rules were first promulgated in 1933 and came into force on July 1, 2007. UCP 600 replaces UCP 500.
Uniform Customs and Practices for Documentary Credits (UCP 500) (http://www.uncitral.org/pdf/english/yearbooks/yb-1994-e/yb_1994_e.pdf) are the former ICC rules governing most international letter of credit transactions. UCP 500 is the applicable rule governing an international letter of credit when the UCP 500 is specified in the credit. UCP 500 is reproduced as Annex II in Uniform Customs and Practices for Documentary Credits: Report of the Secretary General (A/CN.9/935), UNCITRAL Yearbook, 1994, vol. XXV, p. 263.
Earlier versions of the UCP are reproduced in the UNCITRAL Yearbook, 1984 and 1975, respectively: Uniform Customs and Practices for Documentary Credits (1983), and Uniform Customs and Practices for Documentary Credits (1974).
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (http://www.iso.org/)
The ISO, a non-governmental organization established in 1947, is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies representing 159 members. The ISO develops international agreements containing technical specifications as rules or guidelines to ensure that materials and products are suitable for their purposes in a global marketplace. These agreements are published as international standards to break down barriers to trade and facilitate the international exchange of goods and services.
The United Nations Home Page (UN) (http://www.un.org/)
The home page of the UN is an extensive page that has links for information about the major organs and related organizations of the United Nations. The UN Documentation Centre contains full-text resolutions from the General Assembly, Security Council and the Economic and Social Council, other full-text documents and a searchable database for press releases. ODSprovides access to full-text UN documentation beginning in 1993. Older documents are added to ODS on a daily basis. For a detailed guide, see the United Nations Chapter (http://www.asil.org/un1.cfm) of this Electronic Resource Guide for in-depth coverage of the United Nations and its information resources.
UNCITRAL is the main legal body within the United Nations system focusing on international trade law. UNCITRAL's mission is to further the progressive harmonization and unification of the law of international trade. UNCITRAL has texts (http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/uncitral_texts.html) in the areas of international commercial arbitration, international sale of goods, cross-border insolvency, international payments, international transport of goods, electronic commerce, procurement and infrastructure development, and penalties and liquidated damages. Each area includes the text of the law, recommendation or rule, links to working groups, a bibliography, and other information. Selecting the individual text provides the full-text, status, explanatory notes and travaux préparatoires, if available. A Bibliography of Recent Writings Related to the Work of UNCITRAL (http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/publications/bibliography.html) is arranged by UNCITRAL text topic.
CLOUT (http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/case_law.html) is a systematic collection of court decisions and arbitral awards on UNCITRAL texts. CLOUT covers the Convention on the Limitation Period in the International Sale of Goods (New York, 1974), as amended by the Protocol of 1980(http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/uncitral_texts/sale_goods/1974Convention_limitation_period.html), the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (Vienna, 1980) (CISG)(http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/uncitral_texts/sale_goods/1980CISG.html), the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration (1985)(http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/uncitral_texts/arbitration/1985Model_arbitration.html), and the United NationsConvention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea, 1978 (the Hamburg Rules)(http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/uncitral_texts/transport_goods/Hamburg_rules.html). The UNCITRAL site also has texts of documents from UNCITRAL sessions and working groups, current status of texts, and the UNCITRAL Yearbook (http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/publications/yearbook.html) starting with Vol. 1 (1968-1970) to Vol. 35 (2004).
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (http://www.unctad.org/)
Established in 1964, UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly in the field of trade and development. Areas of concern include trade, finance, technology, investment and sustainable development. The Digital Library (http://www.unctad.org/Templates/Page.asp?intItemID=1397&lang=1) includes basic documents, investment guides, papers and documents arranged by subject.
Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies(http://www.wassenaar.org/)
This first global multilateral arrangement on export controls for conventional weapons and sensitive dual-use goods and technologies received approval in July 1996. The Wassenaar Arrangement has 40 participating states. The site provides text of the agreement, press releases, a list of dual-use goods and technologies and munitions, and a country-by-country listing of national export controls contacts. Additional information regarding Wassenaar regulations for the US is available from the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) (http://www.bis.doc.gov/Wassenaar/Default.htm).
World Customs Organization (WCO) (http://www.wcoomd.org/)
The WCO is an independent intergovernmental body with worldwide membership (currently 177 members) and is competent in customs matters. Under WCO Topics, find links covering nomenclature (harmonized system), valuation, origins, enforcement & compliance, procedures & facilitation, and capacity building. Each topic provides an overview, news, responsibilities, committees, and tools & instruments.
World Trade Organization (WTO) (http://www.wto.org/)
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/gatt47_01_e.htm) came into being in 1948 as a multilateral instrument to promote trade. In 1993, the Final Act of the Uruguay Round(http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/final_e.htm) of GATT established the World Trade Organization as an international organization. The Final Act of the 1986-1994 Uruguay Rounds of trade negotiations is a collection of agreements comprising the WTO agreements. (Strictly speaking, the Final Act is the first of these agreements.) For example, the General Agreement on Trade in Goods (http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/legal_e.htm) and the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) (http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/26-gats.pdf) are Annex 1A and 1B of the WTO agreements, respectively. The WTO deals with the rules of trade between nations and supports the multilateral trading system through the WTO agreements that cover, in part, trade, services and intellectual property.
Documents Online (http://docsonline.wto.org) is a database providing access to over 100,000 official documents of the WTO. Includes legal texts (trade agreements), dispute settlement documents, tariff schedules and the trade topics section. Trade topics (http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tratop_e.htm) has information and documents arranged under the following sectors: goods, services, intellectual property, dispute settlement, and other topics (environment, development, trade policy reviews, government procurement, regional trade agreements, competition, investment, and electronic commerce.) The Doha Development Agenda (http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dda_e/dda_e.htm) "provides the mandate for negotiations on a range of subjects, and other work including issues concerning the implementation of the present agreements." (Doha Homepage)
The GATT Digital Library: 1947-1994 (http://gatt.stanford.edu/page/home) contains over 59,000 public documents and publications of the GATT. A Resources page contains bibliographies and research guides. The Digital Library is cooperative effort between the Stanford University Libraries & Academic Information Resources and the World Trade Organization. WorldTradeLaw.net (http://www.worldtradelaw.net/) is a subscription service providing commentary and analysis with a free portion consisting of primary source documents on international trade law, a full-text search engine for GATT/WTO decisions, NAFTA/CUSFTA and FTAA documents, bilateral and regional trade agreements, and a discussion forum.
LEXIS: INTLAW / GATT
Uruguay Round Agreements from December 1993. (Not currently updated.)
Final text of the GATT Uruguay Round Agreements, including the agreement establishing the World Trade Organization (WTO) signed on April 15, 1994.
The WTO Dispute Settlement page (http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/dispu_e.htm) includes panel reports, appellate body reports, and adopted panel reports within the framework of WTO. Adopted Panel Reports Within the Framework of GATT 1947 (http://www.sice.oas.org/DISPUTE/gatdispe.asp) include reports from 1948-1994.
LEXIS: INTLAW / GTTWTO
GATT and WTO Panel decisions from September 1948 (selected).
WTO and GATT Panel decisions, WTO decisions from 1995 to present; GATT decisions 1948-1994.
WTO Analytical Index: Guide to WTO Law and Practice (http://www.law.nyu.edu/library/print-wtoguide.html) is the authoritative guide to the interpretation and application of findings and decisions of WTO panels, the WTO Appellate Body and other WTO bodies and covers from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2004.
D. TRADE TREATIES/CONVENTIONS
See the Treaties Chapter (http://www.asil.org/treaty1.cfm) of this Electronic Resource Guide for in-depth coverage of treaty research. For treaties, agreements and conventions not listed or included in this section, check organization websites or other sites listed under the topical and regional areas of this Guide.
International Labour Organization (ILO) (http://www.ilo.org)
The ILO, a specialized UN agency, develops international labour standards called conventions and recommendations that set minimum standards of basic labour rights. Select "Standards and Fundamental Principles" for links to texts of labour conventions and international labour standards at ILOLEX (http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/index.htm). The text of selected foreign labour legislation is available through NATLEX (http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.home).
Juris International (http://www.jurisint.org/)
Juris International is a multilingual collection (English, Spanish, and French) of legal resources on international trade. The general collection contains international legal instruments including international conventions, codified rules and common usages of international commerce, model clauses and drafting guides from public and private organizations, links to dispute resolution centers, and information on business lawyer associations. Juris International has specialized collections focusing on WTO agreements, OHADA (Organisation for the Harmonisation in Africa of Business Law), and electronic commerce. Juris International is the result of a partnership of the International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO-ITC, LexUM of the Center for Research in Public Law at the University of Montreal, Canada, and Juripole from the University of Nancy, France.
Multilaterals Project, the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy (http://fletcher.tufts.edu/multilaterals/)
Offers texts of treaties and conventions with searchable files. Treaties are arranged according to subject including trade and commercial relations.
United Nations Treaty Collection (http://treaties.un.org/Pages/Home.aspx?lang=en)
The United Nations Treaty Collection has the text of the UN Treaty Series that includes information on over 158,000 records of treaties and related subsequent treaty actions. A new database is in development and the current database is frozen as of November 2007. This service has an advanced search engine, and the publication, Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary General, containing a detailed status of the over 500 multilateral treaties deposited with the Secretary General and is updated daily. Also included is the Recently Deposited Multilateral Treaties, a collection consisting of the texts of multilateral treaties recently deposited with the Secretary-General that have not yet been published in the United Nations Treaty Series. A Treaty Reference Guide (http://treaties.un.org/Pages/Overview.aspx?path=overview/definition/page1_en.xml) has a glossary of treaty terms. The Treaty Handbook (http://treaties.un.org/Pages/Publications.aspx?pathpub=Publication/TH/Page1_en.xml) available in six languages, addresses many aspects of treaty law and practice.
US Bilateral Investment Treaties (http://tcc.export.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral_Investment_Treaties/index.asp)
The texts of all US bilateral investment treaties are available on the website of the Trade Compliance Center (TCC), US Department of Commerce.
US Treaties in Force (http://www.state.gov/s/l/treaty/tif/index.htm)
A list of treaties and other international agreements of the United States in force as of January 1, 2011. This annual publication does not include the text of treaties. Treaty Affairs (http://www.state.gov/s/l/treaty/) of the Office of the Legal Advisor provides links for treaty actions, pending treaties, treaties and other international acts series.
WTO Agreements (http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/legal_e.htm)
This page includes the Uruguay Round Final Act - full texts along with explanation and analysis.
International financial law considers the role of central banks in international economic relations and the development of economic and monetary policy. International financial and securities markets are also addressed.
Bank for International Settlements (BIS) (http://www.bis.org/)
Created at the Hague Conference in January 1930, the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is a central banking institution unique at the international level. The BIS is owned and controlled by central banks and provides tailored services to central banks and ultimately to the worldwide international financial system. The BIS website has full-text BIS publications, including basic texts (under About BIS-Legal Information), working papers, economic papers, policy papers, committee publications, and statistics (under Publications & research), and a collection of links to central banks (under Central Bank hub).
Central Banks Online - Center for the Study of Central Banks, New York University(http://www1.law.nyu.edu/centralbankscenter/)
Scroll down to Documents Collection for a collection of links for central bank documents (foreign banking laws) and an alphabetical listing of central banks with contact information.
Institute of International Bankers (IIB) (http://www.iib.org/)
Founded in 1966, the IIB is an association of banking organizations that operate in the United States. A useful publication on developments in the international banking community is the annual Global Survey 2011(http://www.iib.org/associations/6316/files/2011GlobalSurvey.pdf) that describes the regulatory and market developments in the areas of banking, insurance and securities in 33 countries and the EU.
International Monetary Fund (IMF) (http://www.imf.org/)
The IMF is a cooperative institution with a membership of 187 countries that consult with one another to maintain a stable system of currency transactions. IMF staff country reports and other IMF periodicals are available in full-text. Exchange rates and special drawing rates (SDR) are regularly updated, and country specific information is available at the site. Additionally, selected decisions and selected documents are available.
International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) (http://www.iosco.org/)
IOSCO members are central banks, monetary authorities and national securities commissions. Members cooperate to promote high standards of securities regulation to maintain markets, to exchange information towards the development of domestic markets, and to oversee the surveillance of international securities transactions. The Library includes resolutions and documents on securities regulation, derivatives, securities fraud, and an index of the memoranda of understanding between national securities commissions.
Institute of International Banking Law & Practice (http://www.iiblp.org/) is an educational and research institution dedicated to harmonize international law and practice in the field of banking law. The Institute pioneered several initiatives including the International Standby Practices (ISP98), a set of private rules of practice that apply to standby letters of credit and became effective January 1, 1999. The ISP98 (http://www.uncitral.org/pdf/english/texts_endorsed/ISP98_e.pdf ) is reproduced as Annex II in a report of the United Nations Secretary-General (A/CN.9/477), UNCITRAL Yearbook, 2000, vol. XXXI, p. 579. ISP98 is also issued as ICC Publication 590.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (http://www.oecd.org/)
OECD, comprised of 30 market economy countries with active relationships with some 70 other countries, NGOs and civil society, provides governments with a forum to discuss and shape economic and social policy. Topics addressed by OECD include competition, money laundering, environment, sustainable development, economics, trade and electronic commerce. OECD makes available online documents arranged by theme, type and country. Select Documentation for an extensive collection including the Convention on the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (http://www.oecd.org/) and the OECD Code of Liberalisation of Capital Movements and of Current Invisible Operations (http://www.oecd.org/).
Regional affiliations range from loosely defined customs unions to highly structured and regulated economic and monetary unions. These regional organizations have their press releases, documents, publications, and customs and trade resources available electronically. Many regional websites also provide legislation and information from member countries.
African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (APC) (http://www.acpsec.org/)
APC aims for sustained economic growth for its 79 current members. The Treaties & Agreements page includes texts of treaties and agreements including the Cotonou Agreement Revised (2005), the various Lomé conventions, and the Georgetown Agreement.
Common Market for Eastern & Southern Africa (COMESA) (http://www.comesa.int/)
COMESA is a regional grouping of 19 countries in Eastern and Southern Africa forming a free trade area. It was established in 1994 to replace the Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern Africa (PTA), which had been in existence since 1981.
Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA) (http://www.ohada.org)
OHADA has seventeen member states including Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Congo, Comores, Gabon, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Equatorial Guinea, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Chad, Togo and Democratic Republic of Congo. This site is only in French. The Treaty on the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa(http://www.jurisint.org/ohada/text/text.01.en.html) aims to improve the legal and judicial structures by modernizing and harmonizing business law in member States. Provided by Juris International.
B. ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) (http://www.apec.org)
Established in 1989, APEC currently has 21 member countries that border the Pacific Ocean, working together to promote open trade and economic cooperation in the region. Information available includes economic information for member countries, ministerial statements, business resources, and APEC information by topic. The Guide to the Investment Regimes of the APEC Member Economies (6th Edition), 2007 (http://www.iadb.org/intal/intalcdi/PE/2009/03367.pdf) includes investment information from APEC members.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) (http://www.aseansec.org/)
ASEAN was established in 1967 with the signing of the Bangkok Declaration (http://www.aseansec.org/1212.htm) by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Brunei Darussalam, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia later became members. Objectives from ASEAN summits include the creation of an ASEAN Free Trade Area and a preferential tariff scheme. ASEANWEB has basic documents (http://www.aseansec.org/145.htm) and texts of agreements,(http://www.aseansec.org/economic/afta/afta_agr.htm), statistics, and ASEAN publications.
Council of Europe (http://www.coe.int/)
The Council of Europe is an international organization, which has as its objectives: the strengthening of democracy, promotion of social and economic programs, human rights and the rule of law among its 47 member states. The European Treaty Series (ETS) (http://convention.coe.int) has the text of treaties including signatures and ratification information for each Member State. Treaties regarding international economic law include the establishment of companies, arbitration, and data protection.
European Union (EU)
The Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (Treaty of Rome), effective January 1, 1958, established a Common Market, whose objective was to develop over time integrated economic policies, a common tariff and the elimination of customs duties among members. The Treaty on European Union (Maastricht 1993) established the European Union with the aim to achieve economic and monetary union. The Member States of the EU are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
EUROPA is the European Union's server with links to activities, institutions, official documents, and information sources. Activities of the EU are divided into topics or sectors. Each topic or sector has information on the controlling law in the area, implementation of policies and additional information sources. Summaries of EU legislation, arranged by topic, are available through the service Summaries of EU Legislation(http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/index_en.htm).
The Eur-Lex page has links for the text of the Official Journal, L and C series (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/JOIndex.do?ihmlang=en) from 1998 to the present. Select Other Years at bottom of page to search for Official Journal texts prior to 1998. The Search by Official Journal publication reference permits searching by publication date or O.J. reference. Also find the consolidated treaty versions (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/en/treaties/index.htm) of the Treaty of the European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community, and links for legislation, legislation in preparation, case-law, parliamentary questions, and documents of public interest.
LEXIS: EURCOM / TREATY
European Communities/European Union treaties as provided by CELEX. Coverage from April 18, 1951 through current, founding treaties forward.
This database contains the treaties concluded between the Member States, including the founding treaties, accession treaties, supplementary treaties, and the Maastricht Treaty.
Community Legislation in Force (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/en/legis/index.htm) is accessible through an alphabetical and an analytical index. Standardized headings under the analytical structure relevant to international economic law include competition policy, taxation, economic and monetary policy and free movement of capital, and law relating to undertakings. With the alphabetical index, the researcher can use keywords such as import, international, export, tariff, trade, or the names of particular commodities. A search engine is also available.
Consolidated Legislation (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/en/legis/avis_consolidation.htm) contains legislation that has been amended on one or more occasions, and consolidated by incorporating into the basic instrument all subsequent amendments.
LEXIS: EURCOM / LEGIS
European Communities legislation as provided by Eur-Lex. The source of the legislation is the Official Journal of the European Communities, Series L (legislative) and C (communications). Coverage from December 1952 through present.
European Union legislation including legislative acts, secondary legislation, and supplementary legislation with coverage beginning in 1952.
European Court of Justice and Court of First Instance (http://curia.europa.eu/jcms/jcms/j_6/)
The jurisdiction of the Court of Justice is to hear disputes between Member States, Community institutions, undertakings and individuals. Decisions from the Court of Justice and Court of First Instance are available in full-text from the founding of the Courts to the present.
European Court of Justice from 1954, the Court of First Instance from 1989, and the C Series of the Official Journal from 1985.
European Commission: Directorates-General and Services of the Commission (http://ec.europa.eu/dgs_en.htm)
The Commission is organized into departments called Directorates General, responsible for drafting legislation and overseeing its implementation. In September 1999, a reorganization in the Commission administration created 35 departments with directorates-general no longer referred to by number. Departments focusing in economic law include Economic and Financial Affairs, Enterprise and Industry, Taxation and Customs Union to name a few.
European Free Trade Association (EFTA) (http://www.efta.int/)
Originally founded in 1960, EFTA now includes Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. EFTA's objective is to remove trade barriers among members. The European Economic Area (EEA) came into being on January 1, 1994 extending the internal market of the EU to three EFTA countries, Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway. Legal Texts (http://www.efta.int/legal-texts.aspx) has links for the EFTA Convention, the EEA Agreement, and other conventions and agreements.
D. WESTERN HEMISPHERE
Andean Community (http://www.comunidadandina.org/endex.htm)
The Andean Community, a customs union, is comprised of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. (Venezuela was formerly a member but denounced the Cartagena Agreement in April 2006.) Andean integration focuses on economic and social cooperation to promote the growth of member economies. The aim is to create a Latin American common market through complete trade liberalization, a common external tariff and the progressive harmonization of socio-economic policies and the coordination of national legislation. Treaties, legislation, decisions, and a topical arrangement of resources are available. TheTreaties and Legislation (http://www.comunidadandina.org/ingles/treaties.htm) page has texts of decisions and treaties including the codified version of the Cartagena Agreement, Sucre Protocol and the Treaty creating the Court of Justice of the Cartagena Agreement. The Legal Framework of the Andean Community (http://www.sice.oas.org/Andean/instmt_s.asp) provides the texts of treaties, acts, decisions, and resolutions.
Caribbean Community (CARICOM) (http://www.CARICOM.org/)
CARICOM is an organization focusing on Caribbean regional integration. Resources include the Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas Establishing the Caribbean Community, Including the CARICOM Single Market and Economy(http://www.caricom.org/jsp/community/revised_treaty.jsp?menu=community).
Central American - Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement Home (CAFTA-DR)(http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/CAFTA/Section_Index.html) is a free trade agreement comprising the markets of the United States, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic. The agreement was signed on August 5, 2004. The U.S. Congress approved CAFTA in July 2005 and the President signed it into law on August 2, 2005. This page contains the briefing book, final text, press releases and advisory group reports.
Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) (http://www.alca-ftaa.org/)
The official home page of the FTAA. The aim of the FTAA is to integrate the economies of 34 nations in the Western Hemisphere into a single free trade area. Information available includes an overview of the process initiated in 1994 at the First Summit of the Americas, official documents from the meetings of Western Hemisphere Trade Ministers, information on the Trade Negotiations Committee (TNC) and working groups, and publications. The Summits of the America are an institutionalized set of meetings (Summits) at the highest level of government decision-making in the Western Hemisphere, and are closely associated with the OAS. These Summits discuss economic, social, military, and political problems in the Americas. Links to documents, conferences and publications. The Summits of the Americas Information Network (http://www.summit-americas.org/default-en.htm), hosted by the Summits of the Americas Secretariat, provide support in the areas of planning, implementation, outreach, and follow up of Summit mandates. The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) Process(http://www.sice.oas.org/tpd/ftaa/ftaa_e.asp) from the Organization of American States - Trade Unit has background information and documents from the series of FTAA forums.
Latin American Integration Association (http://www.aladi.org/nsfweb/redisenioSitioi/index.htm)
ALADI has its roots back to 1960 with the creation of the Latin American Free Trade Association (ALALC), which was later modified by the Montevideo Treaty (1980) (http://www.sice.oas.org/trade/Montev_tr/indexe.asp) creating ALADI. ALADI's members include Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Chile, Mexico and Cuba. Documents and other publications are available in Spanish and Portuguese.
This official site for MERCOSUR contains the text of treaties, protocols, official documents, and publications including theBoletín Oficial. (The site is available in Spanish or Portuguese.) MERCOSUR was established by the Treaty of Asunción(http://www.sice.oas.org/trade/mrcsr/mrcsrtoc.asp) that created a common market among Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Venezuela officially joined in July 2006. MERCOSUR aims for a program of trade liberalization, reductions of customs tariffs, the elimination of non-tariff barriers and other restrictions to trade. MERCOSUR is also known as the Common Market of the Southern Cone.
Legal Framework of the Common Market of the Southern Cone (http://www.sice.oas.org/Mercosur/instmt_e.asp) Text of the Treaty of Asunción with annexes, protocols, decisions, resolutions and arbitral awards.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
NAFTA (http://www.nafta-sec-alena.org/en/view.aspx?conID=590) entered into force on January 1, 1994 and aims to eliminate tariffs on qualifying goods between Canada, Mexico and the United States over a period of years. Other objectives include fair competition, greater investment opportunities, and the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights.
NAFTA - Organization of American States - Trade Unit (http://www.sice.oas.org/TPD/NAFTA/NAFTA_e.ASP)
Provides text of the NAFTA agreement and annexes, the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation and the Agreement on Labor Cooperation, and the Understanding Between the Parties to The North American Free Trade Agreement Concerning Chapter Eight Emergency Action.
NAFTA Secretariat (http://www.nafta-sec-alena.org/en/view.aspx)
The NAFTA Secretariat, comprised of the US, Canadian and Mexican Secretariats, was established pursuant to Chapter 20 of NAFTA. The Secretariat has as its primary responsibility the administration of the dispute settlement provisions of NAFTA under chapters 11, 14, 19 and 20. Panel reports and decisions are available for NAFTA and the US-Canada Free Trade Agreement.
Organization of American States (OAS) (http://www.oas.org/)
Organization of American States (OAS) is the world's oldest regional organization, with its roots dating back to the end of the 19th century. OAS objectives are to strengthen the peace and security of the region, and cooperatively promote the economic, social and cultural development of the Members States. The OAS home page has links for OAS news, information, publications, sectors & topics, and documents that include the OAS charter, resolutions, treaties and conventions.
Organization of American States - Trade Unit (http://www.sice.oas.org/)
Also known as SICE, the acronym for Sistema de Información al Comercio Exterior, the Spanish title of the OAS Trade Unit. The Trade Unit has official sources of trade and investment information from international and regional organizations and national government departments. Trade Agreements in Force (http://www.sice.oas.org/agreements_e.asp) include multilateral agreements, customs unions, free trade agreements, framework agreements, and partial preference agreements among countries of the Western Hemisphere. Country pages (http://www.sice.oas.org/countries_e.asp) include bilateral investment treaties, trade agreements, information on national trade policy and national trade legislation. Links for dispute settlement resolutions (http://www.sice.oas.org/Dispute/dispute_e.asp) include panel reports and rulings from the Andean Community, GATT, NAFTA, and the WTO. Glossaries of Trade Terms (http://www.sice.oas.org/Glossaries_e.asp) provides SICE's dictionary of trade-related terms, the searchable version of the FTAA dictionary of trade terms and other trade related glossaries from national, regional and international sources.
Integrated Database of Trade Disputes for Latin America and the Caribbean (http://idatd.eclac.cl/controversias/index_en.jsp) provides simultaneous searching of trade disputes in the WTO, MERCOSUR, NAFTA, CARICOM, Andean Community, and CACM.
Center for Inter-American Free Trade (http://www.natlaw.com/)
The National Law Center is a non-profit research and educational institution focusing on comparative legal and trade issues among countries of the Western Hemisphere. The National Law Center offers NatLaw, a subscription service that links to country information for Latin America including the text of translated laws. Supplementary Information(http://www.natlaw.com/supp.htm) is a collection of free secondary source material prepared by law and tax firms.
Governance refers to the rules that guide the behavior of corporations, shareholders, and managers, as well as to governmental regulation that support and enforce those rules. Corporate governance is concerned with rules of business behavior and strives to move corporate and economic entities from relationship-based systems to rules-based systems. Good government and anti-corruption initiatives focus on creating a fair and equitable world economic order for all players.
Good Governance Program (http://www.ita.doc.gov/goodgovernance/)
This program site from the ITA, US Dept. of Commerce, has resources focusing on promoting the rule of law in business. Areas addressed include transparency through business ethics and anti-corruption, accountability in corporate governance, fairness in dispute resolution and protection of intellectual property rights. Several publications are available: Business Ethics: A Manual for Managing a Responsible Business Enterprise in Emerging Market Economies (http://www.ita.doc.gov/goodgovernance/business_ethics/manual.asp) and Russia Corporate Governance Manual (http://www.ita.doc.gov/goodgovernance/CorpGovManual.asp).
The IMF and Good Governance (http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/facts/gov.htm) An informational page from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) focusing on good governance and ethics in government. Includes links to the Code of Good Practices on Transparency in Monetary and Financial Policies: Declaration of Principles and the Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency.
Eldis Corporate Responsibility Resource Guide (http://www.eldis.org/go/topics/resource-guides/governance) Eldis offers an extensive collection of documents, subject-oriented research guides (for example, corporate responsibility, globalisation, and finance policy), country profiles and email newsletters. Eldis is one of a family of knowledge services from the Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, UK.
ICC Corporate Governance (http://www.iccwbo.org/corporate-governance/) The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) offers information for the business practitioner related to governance impact on international business and trade, guides to basic governance resources, and links to standards, codes and news.
OECD - Corporate Governance (http://www.oecd.org/topic/0,2686,en_2649_37439_1_1_1_1_37439,00.html)
The OECD site contains links to publications and reports on corporate governance, corporate responsibility, accounting reform, privatisation, and multinational enterprises to name a few. Information can be accessed by country, topic or type of document. Notable publications include OECD Principles of Corporate Governance: 2004 and the OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises.
Transparency International (TI) (http://www.transparency.org/) TI is a global organization that works with governments, the media and private organizations to combat corruption. Resources available at this site address corruption in the public and private sectors worldwide. Information can be accessed by regional interest, topic (see global priorities), policy & research, and publications. Notable TI publications include the TI Source Book 2000: Confronting Corruption: The Elements of a National Integrity System.
VII. INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT LAW
International development organizations aim to promote social and economic development through program and financial assistance to developing countries. The websites of development organizations have links to press releases, documents, publications and information from member countries. The regional trade and economic associations in V. Regional Economic Integration also address development issues.
A. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Asian Development Bank (ADB) (http://www.adb.org/)
The ADB was founded in 1966 to promote the social and economic progress of the Asian and Pacific region. The News link has press releases, transcripts and periodicals. The Topics link includes resources on anticorruption and money laundering, governance, labor markets, social protections, and law & policy reform. Selected full-text publications available.
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) (http://www.ebrd.com/) The EBRD was established in 1991 to foster the transition to market economies in the countries of central and eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The EBRD is owned by 61 countries and two intergovernmental institutions and aims to assist its 30 countries of operations to implement economic reforms, promote competition and privatization. UnderPublications (http://www.ebrd.com/pages/research.shtml), the EBRD site has investment reports for the countries of operation, a working papers series, and periodicals.
Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) (http://www.iadb.org/)
Established in 1959 to support economic development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Information arranged by countries, topics, projects, research and publications.
Islamic Development Bank (IDB) (http://www.isdb.org/)
Established in 1973, with its main objective to foster economic development and social progress, the Bank finances productive projects and programs in both the public and private sectors of member countries. The present membership of the IDB consists of 56 member countries spread over four continents: Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America.
United Nations - Regional Cooperation for Development (http://www.un.org/esa/regional.htm)
The home pages of these regional commissions provide information about the activities of their governing bodies, projects of the regional commission, texts of documents, and news.
Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) (http://www.uneca.org/)
Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) (http://www.unece.org/)
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) (http://www.eclac.org/default.asp?idioma=IN)
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) (http://www.unescap.org/)
Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) (http://www.escwa.un.org/)
UN Centre for Trade Faciliation and Electronic Business (http://www.unece.org/cefact)
The Economic Commission for Europe and the UN Economic has links for standards and guidelines, electronic business, repositories and codes, and trade facilitation sites.
B. GLOBAL INITIATIVES FOR DEVELOPMENT
Group of 77 (G-77) (http://www.g77.org/)
The G-77 was established in 1964 by seventy-seven developing countries signing the Joint Declaration of the Group of 77(http://www.g77.org/doc/Joint%20Declaration.html). The Charter of Algiers (http://www.g77.org/doc/algier%7E1.htm) in 1967 led to a permanent institutional structure. Currently comprised of 130 countries, the G77 is one of the largest Third World coalitions in the United Nations, providing an avenue for developing nations to promote their collective economic interests and strengthen their negotiating capacity on international economic issues. Major documents (http://www.g77.org/doc/docs.html) provided.
International Trade Centre (ITC) (http://www.intracen.org/) The International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO is the focal point in the United Nations system for technical cooperation with developing countries on trade promotion. An executing agency of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), ITC is directly responsible for implementing UNDP-financed trade-related projects in developing countries and economies in transition. The ITC Trade Information Reference System (http://www.intracen.org/tirc/welcome.htm) provides access to publications, online trade journals, useful links and bibliographic databases. Database is searchable and browseable by country/region, product or function.
International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) (http://www.ictsd.org/)
The International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) is an independent, non-profit and non-governmental organization, established in 1996, that aims to promote better understanding of development and environmental issues within the arena of international trade. BRIDGES, Weekly Trade News Digest (1997- ) (http://ictsd.net/news/bridgesweekly/) is a newsletter that provides a review of trade-related articles and information on sustainable development.
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) (http://www.unido.org)
Established in 1966, UNIDO is the specialized United Nations agency that assists developing countries and transition economies to achieve sustainable industrial development. Topics covered include industrial governance, investment and technology promotion, trade, private sector industries, agro-industries, sustainable energy and environmental management. The Industrial Development Abstracts Database (http://www.unido.org/IDA.htmls) is searchable and contains over 11,000 abstracts of many unique works including descriptions of major reports, proceedings of expert working groups, workshops and publications in a series.
US Agency for International Development (USAID) (http://www.usaid.gov/)
Established in 1961, USAID is the independent government agency that provides economic development and humanitarian assistance to promote US economic and political interests worldwide. Information is arranged by location, work and policy. A pull-down menu is available to locate projects and information by country.
The World Bank Group (http://www.worldbank.org/)
The World Bank, comprised of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA) offers loans, advice, and other resources to over 100 developing countries. Country and topical information is available in full-text. The World Bank - Data and Research (http://econ.worldbank.org/) has the text of working papers on trade and economic policy, published as part of the Policy Research Working Paper Series, world development reports, and policy research reports. The World Bank Group: World Development Sources (Documents and Reports) (http://www-wds.worldbank.org/) is a web-based text search and retrieval system containing an extensive collection of full-text World Bank reports, publications, and working papers. JOLIS - the Joint Bank-Fund Library Network(http://jolis.worldbankimflib.org/external.htm) is the network of the World Bank Group and International Monetary Fund libraries that work under a cooperative collection development policy. Each library in the network focuses on a subset of the information needs of the World Bank Group and International Monetary Fund. This page provides links for searching World Bank, IMF and IFC publications.
The World Bank Group includes the IBRD and IDA and the following agencies:
The International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) (http://www.worldbank.org/icsid/). Notable is the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes Between States and Nationals of Other States(http://www.worldbank.org/icsid/basicdoc-archive/9.htm) also known as the Washington Convention. ICSID Basic Documents, selected online decisions and awards, a bibliography of bilateral investment treaties, and a list of parties to bilateral investment treaties are some of the highlights of the ICSID site.
International Finance Corporation (IFC) (http://www.ifc.org/)
The IFC is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. Access points includes for regions, sectors, products & services, news, research and publications.
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) (http://www.miga.org/)
MIGA was established in 1988 to encourage the flow of foreign direct investment to its developing member countries.
VIII. PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW
Private international law is also commonly referred to as conflict of laws. When dealings or transactions between private entities take place in the international arena, private international law is that body of conventions, model laws, and legal instruments that help to regulate these interactions. Private international law often dictates whether the private laws of the home country or the foreign country are applicable to cross-border transactions. Private international law initiatives such as UNCITRAL, the Hague Conference and UNIDROIT are also working to harmonize laws relating to transborder economic transactions.
See the Private International Law Chapter (http://www.asil.org/resource/pil1.htm) of this Electronic Resource Guide for in-depth coverage of this topic.
A. INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION
See the International Commercial Arbitration Chapter (http://www.asil.org/arb1.cfm) of this Electronic Resource Guide for in-depth coverage of international commercial arbitration research.
The International Court of Arbitration, (ICC) (http://www.iccwbo.org/court/arbitration/)
The International Court of Arbitration website offers a description of the Court's services, an introduction to arbitration, and model or suggested arbitration clauses. The ICC Rules of Arbitration(http://www.iccwbo.org/court/arbitration/id4424/index.html) contain the text of the rules effective January 1, 1998.
International Commercial Arbitration & Conciliation (UNCITRAL)(http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/uncitral_texts/arbitration.html)
Links for texts of UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules (1976), Conciliation Rules (1980), Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York, 1958), UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration (1985), and UNCITRAL Notes on Organizing Arbitral Proceedings (1996). See also discussion of UNCITRAL in this Guideunder I.C. International Coordination and Trade Resources.
B. CONVENTION ON THE INTERNATIONAL SALE OF GOODS (CISG)
The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (Vienna 1980) ("CISG")(http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/uncitral_texts/sale_goods/1980CISG.html) is an international convention that establishes a comprehensive code of legal rules governing the formation of contracts for the international sale of goods, the obligations of the buyer and seller, remedies for breach of contract and other contractual aspects. The Convention entered into force on January 1, 1988. Currently, the CISG is in force in 74 countries.
United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL): International Sale of Goods (CISG) and related transactions (http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/uncitral_texts/sale_goods.html)
Includes texts of CISG and related conventions.
Case Law on UNCITRAL Texts (CLOUT) (http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/case_law.html) is a database of case abstracts derived from the CISG, and the Model Arbitration Law (MAL)(http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/uncitral_texts/arbitration/1985Model_arbitration.html).
UNILEX on CISG & UNIDROIT Principles: International Caselaw & Bibliography (http://www.unilex.info/)
UNILEX contains international caselaw and a bibliography on the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods and the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts. Each instrument includes the convention text and contracting parties, cases (arranged by date, country, arbitral award or article/issue), and a bibliography.
Application of the CISG in France includes decisions from the Cour de Cassation, Cour d'appel and the Tribunaux de première instance. Site under the direction of Prof. Dr. Claude Witz, University of Saarbruecken.
This website provides cases, materials and legal texts, focusing on the case law of the German speaking countries: Germany, Switzerland and Austria. Also available is the Commentary on the Draft Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (http://www.globalsaleslaw.org/index.cfm?pageID=644) prepared by the Secretariat, Document A/CONF.97/5. (Published: Official Records, UN DOC. A/CONF. 97/19, p. 14 - 66.)
Pace University School of Law, Pace Law Library & The Institute of International Commercial Law(http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/) An extensive site with an annotated version of the CISG, a search template for caselaw, treaty texts and scholarly publications. A great starting point for CISG research. Autonomous Network of CISG Websites(http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/network.html) has links to national CISG sites.
C. PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW ORGANIZATIONS
Hague Conference on Private International Law (http://www.hcch.net/index_en.php)
The Hague Conference is an intergovernmental organization that works for the progressive unification of the rules of private international law. This site provides the text and status of Hague Conventions including, most notably: Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil or Commercial Matters (1965)(http://www.hcch.net/index_en.php?act=conventions.text&cid=17); Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters (1971) (http://www.hcch.net/index_en.php?act=conventions.text&cid=78); Convention on the Taking of Evidence Abroad in Civil or Commercial Matters (1970)(http://www.hcch.net/index_en.php?act=conventions.text&cid=82).
International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT) (http://www.unidroit.org)
UNIDROIT is an international organization dedicated to the harmonization of private international law. This site includes the texts of UNIDROIT conventions (http://www.unidroit.org/english/conventions/c-main.htm), notably the 1983 Convention on Agency in the International Sale of Goods, the 1988 UNIDROIT Convention on International Financial Leasing (Ottawa), the1988 UNIDROIT Convention on International Factoring (Ottawa). The UNIDROIT Principles 2004 - Principles of International Commercial Contracts (http://www.unidroit.org/english/principles/contracts/main.htm) page has the text of the 2004 black letter rules, an article by Michael Joachim Bonell and links to the 1994 edition of the UNIDROIT Principles with black letter rules and comments.
Private International Law Database - US Department of State (http://www.state.gov/s/l/c3452.htm)
This website is maintained by the Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International Law (L/PIL) at the US Department of State. The Office collects treaties, other international instruments, and information on private international law topics such as trade and commerce, finance and banking, trusts and estates, family and children matters, and international judicial assistance. This site includes draft documents from the UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), the Hague Conference on Private International Law, the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT) and the Organization of American States. A permanent electronic archive(http://www.state.gov/www/global/legal_affairs/private_intl_law.html) of information released prior to January 20, 2001 is available.
IX. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS REGULATION
Antitrust/competition, the environment, electronic commerce, and taxation are only a few of the issues of international economic activity that are subject to regulation. The resources of regulation include national laws, government agency rules, policies, guidelines, and the status of a country in relation to pertinent treaties or international conventions.
APEC Competition Policy and Law Database (http://www.apeccp.org.tw/)
This database is a source for competition laws and policies of APEC members. Information arranged by category or member country including competition laws, administrative procedures, decisions of administrative agencies, judicial cases and cooperative arrangements.
European Commission - Competition (http://ec.europa.eu/competition/index_en.html)
Documents are arranged under the headings of Antitrust, Mergers, Liberalisation, State Aid, and International with links for the Official Journal, legislation, cases, and other documents. See also the Agreement between the European Communities and the United States on the Application of Positive Comity Principles in the Enforcement of their Competition Laws(http://ec.europa.eu/comm/competition/international/bilateral/usa.html).
Provides links to competition legislation for countries in the Western Hemisphere, contact information for competition agencies in the Western Hemisphere, and links to global competition agencies.
Global Competition Forum (GCF) (http://www.globalcompetitionforum.org/) is a project of the International Bar Association. This site links to laws, enforcement agencies, papers, reports and speeches.
International Competition Network (ICN) (http://www.internationalcompetitionnetwork.org/) The ICN provides a forum for antitrust authorities worldwide to discuss convergence in competition policy. Topics covered include competition, cartels, and mergers. An extensive document library is available.
OECD - Competition Law and Policy (http://www.oecd.org/daf/clp/)
The Committee on Competition Law and Policy discusses current issues confronting national competition authorities. Reports and analyses by the Committee are available. Competition issues are addressed vis-a-vis law enforcement, trade, industry sectors, and government regulation. Annual reports (http://www.oecd.org/findDocument/) are available from 1994 to the present and summarize important developments in competition policy and the enforcement of competition legislation in OECD countries.
This subsite of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development provides competition links, competition legislation with a Handbook on Competition Legislation (http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/c2clpd55_en.pdf), text and commentary of theModel Law on Competition (http://www.unctad.org/Templates/WebFlyer.asp?intItemID=4108&lang=1), and UNCTAD documents.
This collection includes selected US submissions on competition policy, guidelines, and antitrust sites worldwide. Antitrust Competition Agreements (http://www.usdoj.gov/atr/public/international/int_arrangements.htm)
include the text of antitrust competition agreements the US has completed with seven nations and the European Communities.
B. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE
E-business, IT and Telecoms (ICC) (http://www.iccwbo.org/policy/ebitt/)
The International Chamber of Commerce provides guidelines, policy statements and news items, rules, policy statements and reports.
Electronic Commerce in the WTO (http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/ecom_e/ecom_e.htm)
Includes working papers and documents discussing electronic commerce issues in the context of the Uruguay Round Agreements and the WTO.
Safe Harbor Privacy Principles, US Department of Commerce (http://www.ita.doc.gov/td/ecom/menu.html)
The Safe Harbor Privacy Principles were negotiated between the US Department of Commerce and the European Commission to allow US organizations to satisfy the requirements of the European Commission's Directive on Data Protection and ensure that personal data flows to the United States are not interrupted. The safe harbor framework bridges the differences between the EU and US approaches to privacy protection.
UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce with Guide to Enactment (1996)(http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/uncitral_texts/electronic_commerce/1996Model.html)
Text of model law with additional article 5 bis as adopted in 1998. The Guide to Enactment of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic aims to assist governments in enacting and interpreting the model law.
UNCITRAL - Working Group on Electronic Commerce(http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/commission/working_groups/4Electronic_Commerce.html)
Includes texts of recent documents of UNCITRAL and its working groups (1997 to present).
See also the International Environmental Law Chapter (http://www.asil.org/resource/env1.htm) of this Electronic Resource Guide for in-depth coverage of this topic.
CIESEN - Center for International Earth Science Information Network, Columbia University (http://www.ciesin.org/)
Established in 1989 as a non-profit, non-governmental organization, CIESEN provides the ENTRI-Environmental Treaties and Resource Indicators Service (http://sedac.ciesin.org/entri/) and thematic guides. The ENTRI Conference of Parties (COP) decision search tool (http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gsametasearch/cop_start.jsp)provides for searching decisions produced by the parties of major multilateral environmental agreements.
Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) (http://www.cec.org)
CEC members are Canada, Mexico and the United States. Created under the North American Agreement for Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) (http://www.cec.org/Page.asp?PageID=1226&SiteNodeID=567), this agreement complements the environmental provisions of NAFTA.
Globelaw - International and Transnational Law (http://www.globelaw.com/)
Categories include multilateral conventions, oceans, climate, biodiversity, nuclear weapons, toxics and national legal resources.
United Nations Environment Programme (http://www.unep.org/)
Information is accessible either by issue (for example, climate change, energy, biodiversity, environmental law) or by user group (governments, scientists, business persons, journalist, civil society). ECOLEX (http://www.ecolex.org/index.php), operated jointly by FAO, IUCN and UNEP, is a database providing a comprehensive source of environmental law.
US Income Tax Treaties (http://www.irs.gov/businesses/international/article/0,,id=96739,00.html)
Text of bilateral tax treaties to which the US is a party. Technical explanation included with some treaties.
Office of International Programs - US Social Security Administration (http://www.ssa.gov/international/)
This Office provides the description and text of US bilateral social security agreements with 24 countries, eliminating dual Social Security coverage and taxes. Social Security Programs Throughout the World(http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/progdesc/ssptw/index.html), provides a summary of social security programs, legislation and administration in more than 170 countries. Also contains links to the social security websites of other countries.
Tax and Accounting Sites Directory - International Tax (http://www.taxsites.com/international.html)
An extensive collection of tax links.
X. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW
See also the International Intellectual Property Law Chapter (http://www.asil.org/ip1.cfm) of this Electronic Resource Guidefor in-depth coverage of this topic.
European Patent Office (http://www.european-patent-office.org/index.htm)
Select Official Communications for text of the Official Journal, EPO annual reports (1995 forward), decisions of the administrative council, legal texts, and publications including case law of the Boards of Appeal. Select Toolbox for Applicants for forms and information for filing a patent.
US Patent and Trademark Office (http://www.uspto.gov/)
Extensive information including documents, forms, and links for intellectual property offices worldwide(http://www.uspto.gov/web/menu/other.html).
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) (http://www.wipo.org)
Select "IP Services" for text of the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) (http://www.wipo.int/pct/en/texts/index.htm), regulations, and documentation. The Intellectual Property Digital Library is a gateway to the various intellectual property data collections currently hosted by WIPO, including Hague, JOPAL, Madrid and PCT data. WIPO Lex (http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/index.jsp) is an extensive database of national intellectual property legislation and WIPO treaties in English, French, Spanish and Arabic. Selected treaties include the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property(http://www.wipo.int/clea/docs_new/pdf/en/wo/wo020en.pdf), the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (http://www.wipo.int/clea/docs_new/pdf/en/wo/wo001en.pdf), and the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks (http://www.wipo.int/clea/docs_new/pdf/en/wo/wo020en.pdf), with the Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks (http://www.wipo.int/clea/docs_new/pdf/en/wo/wo016en.pdf). Also available is the Arbitration and Mediation Center (http://arbiter.wipo.int/).
Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) (http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/trips_e/trips_e.htm)
Information on intellectual property in the WTO, including the text of the TRIPS agreement(http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/27-trips.pdf), negotiating documents on TRIPS, news and disputes concerning the agreement.
The Franklin Pierce Intellect Mall Homepage (http://ipmall.info) This site offers a variety of intellectual property resources and hot links.
XI. LOCATING LITERATURE
A. ONLINE BIBLIOGRAPHIC CATALOGS
The online catalog of your law library is a valuable gateway to resources in international economic law. These catalogs enable the researcher to search for books, electronic subscriptions, conference proceedings, journals, government documents, and proceedings of international bodies and IGOs.
The following websites link to web based library catalogs of research, university, law and public libraries.
Library of Congress Online Catalog (http://catalog.loc.gov/)
Geographic arrangement of web library catalogs from around the world.
A new generation of web based online library catalogs provides a powerful tool for identifying books, periodicals, conference proceedings and documents issued by private parties, organizations and government agencies. These publications can be searched using a variety of access points, including title, keyword, author, or subject. Web-based catalogs enable the researcher to select the access point or field in which to search. Many of these catalogs also offer a "Guided search" or an "Advanced search" option that permits the researcher to customize the combination of names, keywords, phrases, or subjects. This is especially useful when only partial or incomplete information is known about a publication. Suggestions for optimizing search strategies are described below.
A Title search generally works with exact title. If title searching retrieves "No Records," try a keyword search.
A Keyword search is the most flexible approach as terms can be combined to search for keywords in the title, author, subject or other field. For basic searches, web based online catalogs enable the researcher to select the field (such as title, author, keyword) in which they wish to search for particular keywords. A great advantage of web based catalogs is the ability to build a search query. Many catalogs have a guided or advanced keyword search option, which provides a template for filling in keywords. Most online catalogs permit the use of boolean connectors (and, or, not) with keyword searching. Check the help screen of your online catalog for search tips. Web based catalogs also enable the researcher to link to other related entries in the library's collection.
An Author search can include names of individuals or names of organizations. Examples of organizations or institutions as authors:
- European Commission
- Organization of American States
- World Intellectual Property Organization
A Subject search requires use of exact Library of Congress Subject Headings. These subject headings can also be subdivided geographically as indicated below. Some suggested headings for international economic law include:
- International economic integration
- Dispute resolution (Law)-International aspects
- International business enterprises
- Commercial law-Germany
- Investments, Foreign-United States
- Intellectual Property (International Law)
- Export sales contracts
- Customs administration-Law and legislation
- Foreign trade regulation-Japan
Remember that terminology differs in the international and foreign law arena. For example, competition, antitrust, restraint of trade describe the same general area of law. Additionally American-English and British-English will have spelling variations resulting in different search results. Most English language material generated outside of the United States will use British-English spelling. All spelling variations need to be tried for the most comprehensive search. Examples include: labor/labour or organization/organisation.
Specialized Online Catalogs:
An organization's website may have a link for searching that organization's library or document collection. Several notable examples are below.
JOLIS - Welcome to the Joint Bank-Fund Library Network (http://jolis.worldbankimflib.org/external.htm)
The World Bank Group and International Monetary Fund libraries work under a cooperative collection development policy, and each library in the network focuses on a subset of the information needs of the World Bank Group and International Monetary Fund.
United Nations Dag Hammarskjöld Library (http://www.un.org/Depts/dhl/)
UNBISnet permits searching by author, title, subject, or UN number. Voting records from the General Assembly and Security Council, and an index to speeches from the major organs of the UN are also available through UNBISnet. UN-I-QUE (UN Info Quest) is a ready reference file created by the Dag Hammarskjöld Library focusing on documents and publications that are frequently requested. UN-I-QUE does not provide full bibliographic details. A very useful United Nations Documentation: Research Guide (http://www.un.org/Depts/dhl/resguide/) presents an overview of the various types of documents and publications issued by the UN and provides guidance on how to work with them. A new feature is the thesaurus(http://www.un.org/Depts/dhl/) which provides multilingual listing of terms in English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, and Spanish.
B. PERIODICAL LITERATURE
Journal and periodical articles can often be a rich source of information on international economic law issues, particularly "hot" or current issues. Remember that online library catalogs search for titles of journals, and periodical indexes search for authors and titles of individual articles.
Several collections of scholarly articles focusing on the social sciences are accessible online free. These specialized collections of full-text research include journal articles, working and accepted papers series. Two of the most prominent are the Social Science Research Network (SSRN) and the Berkeley Electronic Press (bepress).
The Social Science Research Network (SSRN) (http:www.ssrn.com) aims to disseminate social science research and has a number of specialized research networks in each of the social sciences. The database of research is searchable or browseable.
The Berkeley Electronic Press (bepress) (http:www.bepress.com) publishes peer-reviewed journals, working papers, and other scholarly information in the fields of social sciences and the sciences. Bepress is searchable and browseable.
Many excellent articles can be identified using the periodical indexes listed below. Several journals are devoted exclusively to international economic law. For example, the website of the Journal of International Economic Law (http://jiel.oxfordjournals.org) published by Oxford University Press provides the table of contents and selected articles free of charge starting with Volume 1 (1998). The website of the University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law (http://www.law.penn.edu/journals/jil/issues.html) provides full text articles. Coverage includes Journal of Comparative Corporate Law and Securities Regulation (Vols. 1-4), Journal of Comparative Business and Capital Market Law (Vols. 5-8), University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Business Law (Vols. 9-16), University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Economic Law (Vols. 17-28), and University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law (Vols. 29-present).
Current Index to Legal Periodicals (CILP) (http://lib.law.washington.edu/cilp/cilp.html), published by the Marion Gould Gallagher Law Library, University of Washington, is a weekly index to very recent periodical literature. Also available on Westlaw: (CILP).
Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals (IFLP) (http://www.law.berkeley.edu/library/iflp/) (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press for the American Association of Law Libraries, 1960- ). IFLP is a multilingual index to over 470 journals focusing on international law (public and private), comparative law, and the municipal law of countries other than common law jurisdictions. IFLP is available in print and on the Web as a subscription service.
Gale Cengage Learning (http://www.galegroup.com) publishes a legal indexing product in several formats that indexes approximately 875 law reviews, legal newspapers, bar association journals, and specialty publications from the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, and New Zealand. The online product, Legal Resources Index is available on Westlaw: LRI, and LEXIS: LAWREV / LGLIND. A web version is also available. The print version is called Current Law Index. Coverage begins in 1980.
Index to Legal Periodicals & Books (ILP) (http://www.ebscohost.com/academic/index-to-legal-periodicals-books) (New York, NY: H.W. Wilson Co., 1926-). ILP indexes over 850 legal journals from the United States and other common law jurisdictions. ILP is available on CD-ROM and online in WESTLAW: ILP, and LEXIS: LAWREV / ILP. Electronic coverage began in 1981; print coverage dates back to 1926.
Ingenta, formerly UnCover, is a database of current article information taken from over 15,000 multi-disciplinary journals. Limited searching is free and hits contain brief descriptive information, some with abstracts. Full-text articles are available for a fee.
XII. RESEARCH GUIDES, REFERENCE MATERIALS, BLOGS AND STATISTICS
This section includes additional research guides, directories, business information sources, blogs and statistical information.
Electronic Information System for International Law (EISIL) (http://www.eisil.org/)
EISIL is a freely available database of authenticated primary law, documents, and web sites on topics including economic law, human rights, criminal, environmental law, international dispute resolution, communications and transport, air, space, water, and general international law resources. EISIL links to primary documents, such as treaties and other international instruments. Additional information is provided on each instrument, including print citations and relevant dates. EISIL guides users to the "best sites" for certain topical areas or kinds of research: websites that have been examined by experts and measured against certain standards, such as currency, stability, authenticity, comprehensiveness and so on. EISIL also provides links to recommended research guides that assist researchers in exploring their topics of interest more widely. The database is browseable through a broad framework of subject areas as well as searchable using a targeted search engine.
ASIL Human Rights Chapter (http://www.asil.org/humrts1.cfm)
This Electronic Resource Guide chapter presents an extensive treatment of human rights research with links to primary law, secondary law, and suggestions on starting your human rights research. Human rights and international economic law have been at a crossroads for decades. Issues such as labor rights, child labor, treatment of women, minorities and indigenous peoples, and basic human rights are critical to any discussion of international economic activity.
ASIL International Criminal Law Chapter (http://www.asil.org/crim1.cfm)
This Electronic Resource Guide chapter offers references to resources in cybercrime, organized crime and narcotics, environmental crime, and money laundering.
ASIL International Organizations Chapter (http://www.asil.org/intorg1.cfm)
This Electronic Resource Guide chapter offers references to basic research tools, representative intergovernmental organizations (IGO) and non-governmental organizations (NGO).
ASIL Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law: Introduction (http://www.asil.org/ergintr1.cfm)
This Electronic Resource Guide chapter presents background and history on the ERG, and also discusses the impact of the Internet on international law research.
Society of International Economic Law (http://www.sielnet.org) is a new organization for academics world-wide interested international law. Conference papers (http://www.ssrn.com/link/SIEL-Inaugural-Conference.html) are available from the inaugural conference in 2008.
Basic Documents of International Economic Law (BDIEL), by Stephen Zamora and Ronald A. Brand, was originally published as two bound volumes in 1990 (Chicago: CCH). BDIEL is a project of the ASIL International Economic Law Interest Group.BDIEL covers the regulation of international trade, finance and foreign investment; the protection of intellectual property rights; regional economic organizations; instruments governing private commercial transactions, international litigation and arbitration; transportation; and taxation. The online version of BDIEL has been temporarily suspended per the vendor's request.
international Economic Law Documents. This database is a project of the American Society of International Law (ASIL) Interest Group on International Economic Law and contains basic documents of international economic law as selected for the database by the editors.
Lex Mercatoria.org (http://www.lexmercatoria.org)
Lex Mercatoria started as a collaborative effort by the Law Faculty of the University of Tromsø (Sweden) and the Law Faculty of the University of Oslo (Norway). It is currently hosted by the University of Oslo in fellowship with the Institute of International Commercial Law of Pace University School of Law, USA. Lex Mercatoria provides an extensive subject arrangement of international trade law web resources. Topics covered include international economic law, international tax, financial regulation, international commercial arbitration, international trade, private international commercial law, maritime law, intellectual property, and electronic commerce.
RAVE is a database of citations to German and non-German periodicals, decisions and articles that deal with public international law and European law. Citations start with the year 1995. RAVE contains hyperlinks to full-text resources if available. The project was suspended in 2004 but resources are still available.
Directory of Economic, Commodity and Development Organizations (http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/decdo/about.htm)
An alphabetical listing of economic, commodity and development organizations, including addresses, telephone numbers, URLs, and descriptions of organizations. Produced by the staff of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
Encyclopedia of Law and Economics (http://encyclo.findlaw.com)
Edited by Professors Boudewijn Bouckaert and Gerrit De Geest, the Encyclopedia provides a bibliographic survey of law and economics literature in both English and non-English language journals. Headings include private property; tort and unjust enrichment; general contract law; regulation of contracts; tax law, social security and administrative law; civil and criminal procedure; criminal law, economics of crime and law enforcement; and production of legal rules.
globalEDGE - International Business Resources on the WWW (http://globaledge.msu.edu/ibrd/ibrd.asp)
From Michigan State University - Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER), this extensive guide contains links to resources in the following categories: news/periodicals, research, trade, money, reference and other resources.
i.lex: Legal Research System for International Law in U.S. Courts (http://ilex.asil.org/) An online database of select U.S. court cases and related materials designed to serve as a practical resource for members of the judiciary and other legal professionals to identify and understand how international law is interpreted and applied by U.S. courts at both the federal and state level.
International Legal Materials - ASIL (http://www.asil.org/ilm.cfm)
Published bimonthly since 1962, International Legal Materials is often the first place an international economic law document becomes available. The Table of Contents from the International Legal Materials from January 1999 is available on the Internet. Full-text documents are available in print, and in WESTLAW: ILM, and LEXIS: INTLAW / ILM.
Institute of International Economic Law (IEL), Georgetown University Law Center (http://www.law.georgetown.edu/iiel/)
The Institute of International Economic Law, created in August 1999, has the primary mission of encouraging research on International Economic Law (IEL), "defined broadly to include almost any subject involving law as it relates to economic activity crossing national borders." The Institute offers research links, a survey of current international economic law issues and a bibliography. The Institute is continually adding new materials and resources.
Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law (http://www.mpil.de/ww/en/pub/news.cfm)
An important resource of the Institute is the World Court Digest(http://www.mpil.de/ww/en/pub/research/details/publications/institute/wcd.cfm), a reproduction, in a systematic arrangement, of the views on questions of international law, which are expressed in the judgments, advisory opinions and orders of the International Court of Justice. The Digest covers the period: 1986-2000.
Mondaq Business Briefing (http://www.mondaq.com)
Extensive coverage of legislation and regulations, foreign investment information, and worldwide business news. Information is supplied by leading professional organizations. A free, searchable site requiring registration for use.
Peace Palace Library Bibliographies (http://www.ppl.nl/content.php?webpage=bibliographies) includes international investment, cultural heritage and the World Trade Organization among others.
Transnational Law Database (TLDB) (http://www.trans-lex.org)
A database focusing on transnational commercial law, lex mercatoria. The database is an arrangement of a constantly updated list of rules and principles of lex mercatoria. Each principle and rule is followed by the black letter text and comprehensive references taken from arbitral awards and decisions, domestic statutes, international conventions, standard contract forms, and trade practices.
A portal to international trade law resources. The free portion of the site includes primary source documents related to international trade law, a full-text search engine for GATT/WTO decisions, a collection of links, and a discussion forum. The subscriber portion includes dispute settlement commentaries.
WTO/GATT Research (http://www.law.nyu.edu/library/research/researchguides/wtogattresearch/index.htm)
An extensive research guide on the World Trade Organization and the predecessor system under the 1947 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
WWW Resources in Economics (WebEc) (http://www.helsinki.fi/WebEc/WebEc.html)
International economics, health and welfare, labor and demographics, law and economics are a few of the headings of this compilation of links. From the Helsinki School of Economics, Electronic Commerce Institute-Finland, and the Department of Economics, University of Helsinki. WebEc has not been updated since May 2007.
International Economic Law and Policy Blog (http://worldtradelaw.typepad.com/ielpblog/) covers international economic law in the world community. Over twenty commentators contribute to this blog maintained by WorldTradeLaw.net.
Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) (http://www.bea.gov/)
The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) is an agency of the US Department of Commerce, also known as the nation's accountant. Data is grouped into the following categories: national, international, regional, and industry. Data covers balance of payments, foreign investment, exports and imports, US and foreign direct investment.International Economic Accounts (http://www.bea.gov/international/index.htm) collects and analyzes data on US direct investment abroad and foreign direct investment in the US and provides texts of many documents online.
EUROSTAT - Statistical Office of the European Communities (http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/)
Search or browse for statistics by theme.
Office of Trade and Economic Analysis (OTEA), US Department of Commerce(http://www.ita.doc.gov/td/industry/otea.html)
A service of the International Trade Administration that includes US foreign trade statistics.
United Nations, Index to Economic and Social Development - Statistics(http://www.un.org/esa/subindex/wb1510.htm)
A collection of UN statistical sites dealing with development and trade.
WTO - International Trade Statistics (http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/statis_e.htm)
Provides access to an interactive statistics database, the annual publication: International Trade Statistics (2000-2010), manuals, press releases and links to other statistical sources.
This page was last updated on December 1, 2011.